Over the past few years, a growing number of US states and cities have enacted legislation to create state-sponsored retirement savings programs for employees of organizations that don’t offer an employer-sponsored plan like a 401(k). Currently, 40 states have considered, studied, or moved toward implementing this type of program, though only 10 states and one major city (Seattle) have yet implemented them, writes Paula Aven Gladych at Employee Benefit News. Not all state and local policies are alike, however: While automatic-enrollment, payroll-deducting IRA programs (“auto-IRAs”) are the most popular policy tool, others include multiple-employer plans and retirement savings marketplaces:
California, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Oregon and the city of Seattle have adopted automatic IRAs. Massachusetts and Vermont have adopted multiple employer plans and New Jersey and Washington State have adopted marketplaces. New York, the latest state to jump into the fray, has adopted a voluntary payroll deduction IRA. …
The states that haven’t made a move yet will be watching closely to see how effective the different tools are in marketing the plans to employers and employees. … These programs are getting bipartisan support. Blue and red states are studying the issue. Every year there’s a handful of states in study mode, considering what their options are, says [Angela Antonelli, executive director for the Center for Retirement Initiatives at Georgetown University].
New York’s new program, adopted in April as part of the state’s budget for fiscal year 2019, is similar to the auto-IRAs adopted in other states, except that it is not compulsory for any employer to participate, as Paychex analyst Jessica Curtin explained at the time. The program, scheduled to begin in April 2020, uses a Roth IRA structure, so contributions are made on a post-tax basis. Employers cannot make direct contributions to the plan, but those that choose to participate must automatically enroll their employees at a contribution rate of 3 percent of their paychecks; employees may then choose to opt out.